Espresso-based, without milk
- Espresso is made with hot water at between 91 °C (195 °F) and 96 °C (204 °F) forced, under a pressure of between eight and nine atmospheres (800–900 kPa), through a lightly packed matrix (called a puck) of finely ground coffee. It can be served alone (often after an evening meal), and is the basis for many coffee drinks. It is one of the strongest tasting forms of coffee regularly consumed, with a distinctive flavor and crema, a layer of emulsified oils in the form of a colloidal foam standing over the liquid.
- Americano style coffee is made with espresso (normally several shots), topped with hot water to give a similar strength (but different flavor) to drip-brewed coffee
- Long black is similar to Americano, but prepared in different order (espresso is added to water instead of vice versa); famous in Australia.
- Lungo is different from an Americano. It is usually a double shot of espresso run through the machine; all the water runs through the beans, as opposed to adding water.
- Ristretto is an espresso made with less than the usual amount of water, filling a small espresso cup half-full of very strong coffee.
Espresso-based, with milk
- Caffè latte or caffè e latte is often called simply latte, which is Italian for "milk", in English-speaking countries; it is espresso with steamed milk, traditionally topped with froth created from steaming the milk. A latte comprises one-third espresso and nearly two-thirds steamed milk. More frothed milk makes it weaker than a cappuccino. A latte is also commonly served in a tall glass; if the espresso is slowly poured into the frothed milk from the rim of the glass, three layers of different shades will form, with the milk at the bottom, the froth on top and the espresso in between. A latte may be sweetened with sugar or flavored syrup. Caramel and vanilla and other flavors are used.
- Caffè macchiato — macchiato meaning "marked" or "spotted" — is an espresso with a little steamed milk added to the top, usually 1–2 oz, sometimes sweetened with sugar or flavored syrup.
- Cappuccino comprises equal parts of espresso coffee and milk and froth, sometimes sprinkled with cinammon or powdered cocoa.
- Flat white is one part espresso with two parts steamed milk, but no foam, usually served in a cappuccino cup. This is a specialty of Australia and New Zealand, particularly favored in the latter. The difference between a flat white and a latte is that a flat white is usually stronger, served in a smaller cup, and has no foam.
- Latte macchiato is the inverse of a caffè macchiato, being a tall glass of steamed milk spotted with a small amount of espresso, sometimes sweetened with sugar or syrup.
- Mocha is a latte with chocolate added.
Brewed or boiled, non espresso-based
- Black coffee is drip-brewed, percolated, vacuum brewed, or French-press-style coffee served without cream. Some add sugar.
- White coffee is black coffee with unheated milk added. Some add sugar
- Café au lait is similar to latte except that drip-brewed coffee is used instead of espresso, with an equal amount of milk. Some add sugar.
- Indian (Madras) filter coffee, particularly common in southern India, is prepared with rough-ground dark roasted coffee beans (e.g., Arabica, PeaBerry). The coffee is drip-brewed for a few hours in a traditional metal coffee filter before being served with milk and sugar. The ratio is usually 1/4 decoction, 3/4 milk.
- Greek coffee is prepared similarly to Turkish coffee. The main difference is that the coffee beans are ground into a finer powder and sugar is added during the process. It does not contain other flavors and usually is not served with milk. The reason why Greek coffee grounds are finer is that during the Turkish occupation of Greece coffee was manufactured in centrifuges mills; the Turks would keep the heaviest grained coffee, while Greeks used to take whatever was rejected from the centrifuges process. Greek coffee is served in a small cup with a handle, and accompanied always by a small cookie and a glass of water. A similar method to the Greek preparation is used in Colombia to make 'tinta', strong black coffee that is often brewed with panela, a sugar concentrate in cake form. A muslin or fine-cloth bag is used to strain the grounds.
- Vietnamese-style coffee is another form of drip brew. In this form, hot water is allowed to drip though a metal mesh into a cup, and the resulting strong brew is poured into a glass containing sweetened condensed milk which may contain ice. Due to the high volume of coffee grounds required to make strong coffee in this fashion, the brewing process is quite slow. It is also highly popular in Cambodia and Laos.
- Red Eye is one espresso shot added to a cup of coffee (typically 7-16oz). Some add milk or sugar.
- Black Eye is two espresso shots added to a cup of coffee (typically 7-16oz). Some add milk or sugar.
- Flavored coffee: In some cultures, flavored coffees are common. Chocolate is a common additive that is either sprinkled on top or mixed with the coffee to imitate the taste of Mocha. Other flavorings include spices such as cinnamon, nutmeg, cardamom, or Italian syrups. In the Maghreb, the orange blossom is used as a flavoring. Vanilla- and hazelnut-flavored coffees are common in the United States; these are usually artificially flavored.
- Turkish coffee is served in very small cups about the size of those used for espresso. Traditional Turkish coffee cups have no handles, but modern ones often do. The crema or "face" is considered crucial, and since it requires some skill to achieve its presence is taken as evidence of a well-made brew. (See above for preparation method.) It is usually made sweet, with sugar added after the brew process begins, and often is flavored with cardamom or other spices. In many places it is customary to serve it with a tall glass of water on the side.
- Chicory is sometimes combined with coffee as a flavoring agent, as in the style of coffee served at the famous Café du Monde in New Orleans. Chicory has historically been used as a coffee substitute when real coffee was scarce, as in wartime. Chicory is popular as an additive in Belgium and is an ingredient in Madras filter coffee.
Alcoholic coffee drinks
Cold Coffee drinks
- Alcoholic spirits and liqueurs can be added to coffee, often sweetened and with cream floated on top. These beverages are often given names according to the alcoholic addition:
- Black coffee with brandy, or marc, or grappa, or other strong spirit.
- Irish coffee, with Irish whiskey, sugar, and cream. There are many variants, essentially the same but with the use of a different spirit:
- Café au Drambuie, with Drambuie instead of whiskey
- Caribbean or Jamaican coffee, with dark rum
- Gaelic or Scotch coffee, with Scotch whisky
- Kahlua coffee, with Kahlua liqueur
- Iced coffee is a cold version of hot coffee, typically drip or espresso diluted with ice water. Iced coffee can also be an iced or chilled form of any drink in this list.
- Frappé is a cold coffee drink made from instant coffee. It was created in Greece in 1957 in the city of Thessaloniki. This type of coffee is probably consumed in Greece more than traditional Turkish coffee, especially in the spring and summer months. Frappé is served cold, with a drinking straw, either with or without sugar or milk.
- Ice-blended coffee (trade names: Frappuccino, Ice Storm) is a variation of iced coffee. The term Frappucino was coined by Starbucks (a portmanteau of Frappé and Cappuccino: Frappuccino). Other coffeehouses serve similar concoctions, but under different names, since "Frappuccino" is a Starbucks trademark. One commonly used by many stores is Ice Storm. Another prominent example is the Javakula at Seattle's Best Coffee. A frappuccino is an iced latte, mocha, or macchiato mixed with crushed ice and flavorings (such as vanilla/hazelnut if requested by the customer) and blended.
- Thai iced coffee is a popular drink commonly offered at Thai restaurants in the United States. It consists of coffee, ice, and sweetened condensed milk.
- Cold brewed coffee Toddy coffee is a filtered, drip-style process of brewing coffee slowly (12 hours) with cold water to produce a strong coffee concentrate, often served diluted with water or milk of choice